xah fly keys Mode

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This is the home page of xah-fly-keys.

xah-fly-keys.el is a modal editing mode for emacs, like vi, but the design of key/command choice is based on command frequency and ease-of-press key positions. Major editing key choices is mostly the same as in ergoemacs-mode.


Download at https://github.com/xahlee/xah-fly-keys


Put the file xah-fly-keys.el in ~/.emacs.d/lisp/

put the following in your emacs init:

(add-to-list 'load-path "~/.emacs.d/lisp/")
(require 'xah-fly-keys)

Key to Activate Command Mode

By default:

You should define a convenient key to activate command mode.

The key to activate command mode must be the MOST easy-to-press key on YOUR keyboard.

For example, in your init file:

;; set key to activate command mode. (regardless what's current mode)
(global-set-key (kbd "<f8>") 'xah-fly-command-mode-activate)

On a typical PC keyboard, i recommend you set the Caps Lock key to send ↖ Home key signal for activating command mode.

How to set the CapsLock key as Home?

Emacs cannot set Caps Lock directly. You need to use a keyboard tool. See:



Microsoft Windows

Key to Activate Insert Mode

While you are in command mode, 【Space】 activates insertion mode. The command name is “xah-fly-insert-mode-activate”.

You can set another extra key to absolutely switch to insertion mode, regardless what's current mode, like this:

;; make key 【end】 to activate insertion mode. (regardless what's current mode)
(global-set-key (kbd "<end>") 'xah-fly-insert-mode-activate)

Lead Key for Commands

in “xah fly keys”, essentiall all emacs 【Ctrl+x …】 have a key that's a key sequence 【leader key c g

While in command mode, 【x】 key acts as the leader key.

For example, ido-switch-buffer is 【x c g】, while in command mode.

pc keyboard2
Typical PC keyboard. See the ▤ Menu key besides the right Ctrl.

By default, 【▤ Menu】is also a leader key, regardless of current mode.

The leader key is critical. Because it is used for vast majority of emacs commands.

You want this lead key to be something most easy to type. I recommend it to be something under the thumb. For example, left Alt.

You can set the leader key like this:

;; set a global leader key
(global-set-key (kbd "<f7>") 'xah-fly-leader-key-map)

I recommend to get a good symmetric keyboard with big thumb keys. See: Best Keyboard for Emacs

Turn Off xah-fly-keys

It is important to be able to toggle xah-fly-keys. Because, in some modes, such as dired, you want to be able to use the dired default keys.

By default, 【Ctrl+7】 toggles xah-fly-keys.


The mode is really simple. Just open the file xah-fly-keys.el. Look at the code, it's really simple. If you prefer some other key or command, just change there.

Yes, i recommend you make a copy, and just modify the copy, and use that version. This make lots things simpler. Don't worry about upgrade. I still make experimental changes almost every week.

The only difficulty is that you need to change muscle memory to adopt to this keyset. It'll be difficult, takes about 1 month to be fluent.

Truly Ergonomic Keyboard Configuration

xah-fly-keys is designed for any keyboard, including standard PC keyboard or fancy ones like

I use it on Truly Ergonomic Keyboard. Here's my current Truly Ergonomic Keyboard configuration.

xah truly ergonomic keyboard 207 config 2013-10-01
xah Truly Ergonomic Keyboard config

note the ↖ Home and ↘ End keys. The ↖ Home is used to go to command mode.

the ↘ End is used as a leader key for xah's personal commands. (about 80 of them)

Also note the F13F17 keys. They are used as single key, mostly for controlling windows & tabs system-wide.

the “Apps” on the left space bar position means the ▤ Menu key. It is used as lead key for key sequences. Key sequence is used for non-fast-repeat commands, which is about all of emacs thousand commands, minus about 30 fast-repeat commands. 〔➤ Emacs: Fast-repeat vs Non-fast-repeat Commands & Keys

Setting Up Keys on Mac

On Mac OS X, you can set up the right ⌘ Cmd key or right ⌥ Opt to be ▤ Menu key. You can also set the Caps Lock to be ↖ Home.

Mac OS X: Keyboard Layout, Keymapping, Keybinding, Software ⌨

Why I Created It

here's some detail about why i created it.

i'm a QWERTY typer since ≈1987. Switched to Dvorak in ≈1994. Started to use emacs in 1997, live in it by 1998. Used default GNU keybinding up to 2006. Started to experience minor RSI discomfort a few times since 2010. 〔➤ Summary of My Typing & RSI Experience 1992 〜 2013

i always regarded the vi modal ways a hack of the hack of the unix lineage. 〔➤ History of Emacs & vi Keys〕 I'll never touch it. But starting in 2010, i had lots thoughts about keyboard efficiency, and it occurred to me the modal way is actually more efficient, for programers.

the reason is, that on average, ≈50% of key-strokes of programers are actually not data-entry (that is, 50% are actually moving cursor, copy/cut/delete text, etc.) 〔➤ Emacs's Command Frequency Statistics〕 That means, if using modal ways, 50% of the time you don't have to press key combinations to execute commands, just a single key for each command. So, the 50% of time when you call commands, each command you save about 1 or 2 key-stroke, so in total you save about 50% × 50% = 25% of key-strokes. The trade-off is that you have to constantly switch modes, which means adding a key stroke every time you do so. In the end, i estimate that modal keyset saves you about 10% to 20% of key strokes.

i've been wanting to create and experiment with vi modal ways since 2010. While there's viper-mode (which is a vi-emulator) and there's evil-mode (which is based on vim (a more advanced vi)), but their key/command choices is largely historical, not a clean design based on efficiency.

see also: on vi Keybinding vs Emacs Keybinding

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