A vector is a general-purpose array whose elements can be any Lisp objects. (By contrast, the elements of a string can only be characters. See Strings and Characters.) Vectors are used in Emacs for many purposes: as key sequences (see Key Sequences), as symbol-lookup tables (see Creating Symbols), as part of the representation of a byte-compiled function (see Byte Compilation), and more.
Like other arrays, vectors use zero-origin indexing: the first element has index 0.
Vectors are printed with square brackets surrounding the elements.
Thus, a vector whose elements are the symbols
a is printed as
[a b a]. You can write vectors in the
same way in Lisp input.
A vector, like a string or a number, is considered a constant for
evaluation: the result of evaluating it is the same vector. This does
not evaluate or even examine the elements of the vector.
See Self-Evaluating Forms. Vectors written with square brackets
should not be modified via
aset or other destructive
operations. See Mutability.
Here are examples illustrating these principles:
(setq avector [1 two '(three) 'four' [five]]) ⇒ [1 two '(three) 'four' [five]] (eval avector) ⇒ [1 two '(three) 'four' [five]] (eq avector (eval avector)) ⇒ t