The high-level completion functions
read-shell-command are designed
to read file names, directory names, and shell commands, respectively.
They provide special features, including automatic insertion of the
read-file-nameprompt &optional directory default require-match initial predicate
This function reads a file name, prompting with prompt and providing completion.
As an exception, this function reads a file name using a graphical file dialog instead of the minibuffer, if all of the following are true:
nil. See Dialog Boxes in The GNU Emacs Manual.
The exact behavior when using a graphical file dialog is platform-dependent. Here, we simply document the behavior when using the minibuffer.
read-file-name does not automatically expand the returned file
name. You must call
expand-file-name yourself if an absolute
file name is required.
The optional argument require-match has the same meaning as in
completing-read. See Minibuffer Completion.
The argument directory specifies the directory to use for
completing relative file names. It should be an absolute directory
name. If the variable insert-default-directory is non-
directory is also inserted in the minibuffer as initial input.
It defaults to the current buffer’s value of default-directory.
If you specify initial, that is an initial file name to insert
in the buffer (after directory, if that is inserted). In this
case, point goes at the beginning of initial. The default for
nil—don’t insert any file name. To see what
initial does, try the command C-x C-v in a buffer visiting
a file. Please note: we recommend using default rather
than initial in most cases.
If default is non-
nil, then the function returns
default if the user exits the minibuffer with the same non-empty
read-file-name inserted initially. The initial
minibuffer contents are always non-empty if
insert-default-directory is non-
nil, as it is by
default. default is not checked for validity, regardless of the
value of require-match. However, if require-match is
nil, the initial minibuffer contents should be a valid file
(or directory) name. Otherwise
completion if the user exits without any editing, and does not return
default. default is also available through the history
If default is
read-file-name tries to find a
substitute default to use in its place, which it treats in exactly the
same way as if it had been specified explicitly. If default is
nil, but initial is non-
nil, then the default is
the absolute file name obtained from directory and
initial. If both default and initial are
and the buffer is visiting a file,
read-file-name uses the
absolute file name of that file as default. If the buffer is not
visiting a file, then there is no default. In that case, if the user
types RET without any editing,
returns the pre-inserted contents of the minibuffer.
If the user types RET in an empty minibuffer, this function returns an empty string, regardless of the value of require-match. This is, for instance, how the user can make the current buffer visit no file using M-x set-visited-file-name.
If predicate is non-
nil, it specifies a function of one
argument that decides which file names are acceptable completion
alternatives. A file name is an acceptable value if predicate
nil for it.
Here is an example of using
(read-file-name "The file is ") ;; After evaluation of the preceding expression, ;; the following appears in the minibuffer:
---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ---------- The file is /gp/gnu/elisp/∗ ---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ----------
Typing manual TAB results in the following:
---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ---------- The file is /gp/gnu/elisp/manual.texi∗ ---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ----------
If the user types RET,
read-file-name returns the file name
as the string
nil, this should be a function that accepts the same
called, it calls this function with the supplied arguments instead of
doing its usual work.
If this variable is non-
read-file-name ignores case
when performing completion.
read-directory-nameprompt &optional directory default require-match initial
This function is like
read-file-name but allows only directory
names as completion alternatives.
If default is
nil and initial is non-
read-directory-name constructs a substitute default by
combining directory (or the current buffer’s default directory
if directory is
nil) and initial. If both
default and initial are
nil, this function uses
directory as substitute default, or the current buffer’s default
directory if directory is
This variable is used by
read-file-name, and thus, indirectly,
by most commands reading file names. (This includes all commands that
use the code letters ‘f’ or ‘F’ in their interactive form.
See Code Characters for interactive.) Its
value controls whether
read-file-name starts by placing the
name of the default directory in the minibuffer, plus the initial file
name, if any. If the value of this variable is
read-file-name does not place any initial input in the
minibuffer (unless you specify initial input with the initial
argument). In that case, the default directory is still used for
completion of relative file names, but is not displayed.
If this variable is
nil and the initial minibuffer contents are
empty, the user may have to explicitly fetch the next history element
to access a default value. If the variable is non-
initial minibuffer contents are always non-empty and the user can
always request a default value by immediately typing RET in an
unedited minibuffer. (See above.)
;; Here the minibuffer starts out with the default directory. (let ((insert-default-directory t)) (read-file-name "The file is "))
---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ---------- The file is ~lewis/manual/∗ ---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ----------
;; Here the minibuffer is empty and only the prompt ;; appears on its line. (let ((insert-default-directory nil)) (read-file-name "The file is "))
---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ---------- The file is ∗ ---------- Buffer: Minibuffer ----------
read-shell-commandprompt &optional initial history &rest args
This function reads a shell command from the minibuffer, prompting with prompt and providing intelligent completion. It completes the first word of the command using candidates that are appropriate for command names, and the rest of the command words as file names.
This function uses minibuffer-local-shell-command-map as the
keymap for minibuffer input. The history argument specifies the
history list to use; if is omitted or
nil, it defaults to
shell-command-history (see shell-command-history). The optional argument initial
specifies the initial content of the minibuffer (see Initial Input). The rest of args, if present, are used as the
default and inherit-input-method arguments in
read-from-minibuffer (see Text from Minibuffer).
This keymap is used by
read-shell-command for completing
command and file names that are part of a shell command. It uses
minibuffer-local-map as its parent keymap, and binds TAB